Binary Classification

Classification in Machine Learning

In machine learning and statistics, classification is a supervised learning method in which a computer software learns from data and makes new observations or classifications.

Classification is the process of dividing a set of data into distinct classes. It may be applied to both organized and unstructured data. Predicting the class of data points is the first step in the procedure. Target, label, and categories are common terms for the classes.

Approximating the mapping function from discrete input variables to discrete output variables is the problem of classification predictive modeling. The basic objective is to figure out which category or class the new data belongs in.

There are a couple of different types of classification tasks in machine learning, namely:

  • Binary Classification – This is what we’ll discuss a bit more in-depth here. Classification problems with two class labels are referred to as binary classification. In most binary classification problems, one class represents the normal condition and the other represents the aberrant condition.
  • Multi-Class Classification – Classification jobs with more than two class labels are referred to as multi-class classification. Multi-class classification, unlike binary classification, does not distinguish between normal and pathological results. Instead, examples are assigned to one of a number of pre-defined classes.
  • Multi-Label Classification – Classification problems with two or more class labels, where one or more class labels may be anticipated for each case, are referred to as multi-label classification. It differs from binary and multi-class classification, which predict a single class label for each case.

A Closer Look At Binary Classification.

As we’ve already discussed and as its name implies, binary classification in deep learning refers to the type of classification where we have two class labels – one normal and one abnormal. Some examples of binary classification use:

  • To detect whether email is spam or not
  • To determine whether or not a patient has a certain disease in medicine.
  • To determine whether or not quality specifications were met when it comes to QA (Quality Assurance).

For example, the normal class label would be that a patient has the disease, and the abnormal class label would be that they do not, or vice-versa.

As is with every other type of classification, it is only as good as the binary classification dataset that it has – or, in other words, the more training and data it has, the better it is.


Machine learning model accuracy is one of the numerous measures used to assess a classification problem’s progress. The number of right guesses divided by the total number of forecasts is accuracy: accuracy = number correct / total. An accuracy score of 1.0 would be assigned to a model that always predicted accurately. When the classes in the dataset occur with roughly the same frequency, accuracy is a suitable statistic to employ, all else being equal.

Accuracy (and most other categorization measures) have the drawback of not being able to be utilized as a loss function. SGD requires a smooth loss function, yet accuracy, as a ratio of counts, fluctuates in “jumps.” As a result, we must find a replacement for the loss function. The cross-entropy function is this substitution.

Binary Classification Algorithms

There are quite a few different algorithms used in binary classification. The two that are designed with only binary classification in mind (meaning they do not support more than two class labels) are Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. A few other algorithms are: Nearest Neighbours, Decision Trees, and Naive Bayes.

  • Logistic Regression – It’s a machine learning classification algorithm that employs one or more independent variables to produce a result. A dichotomous variable is used to assess the result, which means there are only two potential results. The purpose of logistic regression is to identify the best fit between a dependent variable and a collection of independent variables. It outperforms other binary classification algorithms such as closest neighbor because it quantifies the elements that lead to categorization.
  • Support Vector Machine – The support vector machine is a classification algorithm that depicts training data as points in space split into categories by as large a distance as feasible. After then, new points are added to space by guessing which category they will fall into and which space they will occupy. Its decision function employs a subset of training points, making it memory economical and very effective in high-dimensional spaces. The support vector machine’s sole drawback is that the approach does not immediately offer probability estimations.