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MLOps, DevOps, and ModelOps: Which one to choose?

This blog post was written by Tonye Harry as part of the Deepchecks Community Blog. If you would like to contribute your own blog post, feel free to reach out to us via blog@deepchecks.com. We typically pay a symbolic fee for content that's accepted by our reviewers.


When it comes to managing the development process in the tech industry, the terminologies DevOps, MLOps, and ModelOps are widely used. If you are new to these terms or unsure of which one to choose, you are not alone. Depending on your company’s maturity level, you might have experienced challenges in aligning the development process with your business objectives and goals. Using one or all of these approaches can help you with a seamless development process.

DevOps, MLOps, and ModelOps are all methodologies for managing the development and deployment of machine learning models. In short terms:

  • DevOps (Development Operations): is a general methodology for managing the software development lifecycle, focused on integrating development and operations teams to ensure a streamlined and continuous delivery process.
  • MLOps (Machine Learning Operations): refers to the set of practices for managing the entire machine learning lifecycle, from data preparation and model training to deployment and monitoring.
  • ModelOps (Model Operations): this is a newer approach that focuses specifically on the operationalization of machine learning models, with an emphasis on model monitoring, maintenance, and governance.

Utilizing one or more of these approaches for a project, depending on your unique case, is essential for ensuring that the model development and deployment process is efficient, effective, scalable, and sustainable. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, and the choice will depend on your project’s specific needs and goals.

This article will provide an overview of the different methodologies, their use cases, challenges, and a broad comparison to inform your team on which to choose at the different points of your project.

Before we continue, take note of these important differences:

MLOps vs. DevOps

DevOps focuses on streamlining the software development lifecycle from building and testing to deployment and monitoring. MLOps, on the other hand, emphasizes the machine learning pipeline, from data ingestion and preparation to model training and deployment. While both approaches share similar goals, such as improving collaboration and efficiency, MLOps places more emphasis on the unique challenges associated with machine learning projects.

DevOps vs. DataOps

DevOps and DataOps are two approaches to managing software development and data pipeline processes. DevOps automates and streamlines the entire software development lifecycle, from building and testing to deployment and monitoring. It aims to improve software development efficiency by using automation tools and practices to speed up the development cycle.

DataOps, on the other hand, is focused on managing the data pipeline, which includes data ingestion, data preparation, modeling, and analysis. DataOps aims to improve the efficiency of the data pipeline and collaboration among data stakeholders. It seeks to standardize the process for data management and make it more agile to meet the changing business needs.


DevOps is a software development methodology that emphasizes collaboration and communication between development and operations teams. It helps align development efforts with business objectives. Key features of DevOps include continuous integration and delivery, infrastructure as code (IaC), automated testing and monitoring, and collaboration tools.


Fig 1. DevOps Source

DevOps is a more general approach that can be applied to a wide range of software development projects, including those involving Machine Learning.

Use cases

DevOps has many use cases, from web and mobile app development to cloud infrastructure management and cybersecurity. They include:

  • Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD): DevOps is commonly used to automate and streamline the process of building, testing, and deploying software, which is critical in a fast-paced development environment. CI/CD pipelines enable teams to release software updates quickly and frequently, ensuring that applications are always up-to-date and meeting the needs of end-users.
  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC): IaC is a DevOps practice that involves defining and managing infrastructure using code. This approach allows teams to provision and configure infrastructure quickly and consistently, reducing the risk of errors and increasing efficiency.
  • Monitoring and Logging: the practices and tools in DevOps are used to ensure that applications are performing as expected and that issues are identified and resolved quickly. Monitoring and logging tools enable teams to monitor the health of applications and infrastructure in real-time and to identify and diagnose issues before they impact end users.
  • Collaboration and Communication: DevOps is focused on breaking down silos and promoting collaboration across teams, which is essential in modern software development. DevOps tools and practices facilitate communication and collaboration between developers, operations teams, and other stakeholders, enabling teams to work together more effectively and efficiently.


DevOps methodology ensures higher quality and reliability and improved efficiency when it comes to development. Here are its benefits in Machine Learning:

  • By implementing DevOps practices, Machine Learning models can be deployed faster, allowing teams to quickly get feedback on their work and iterate on improvements.
  • DevOps encourages collaboration between different teams, such as data scientists and developers, which can lead to more effective Machine Learning solutions.
  • These practices emphasize automated testing, which can help catch issues earlier in the development cycle and reduce the risk of errors in production.
  • It emphasizes continuous improvement, which can help teams identify areas for improvement and make incremental changes over time.
  • DevOps practices can help organizations scale their Machine Learning solutions more effectively, allowing them to handle larger datasets and more complex models.


As with any technology or software development process, DevOps also has its fair share of challenges. Some of the key challenges of DevOps include:

  • DevOps relies heavily on automation and tooling, which can add some complexity and require significant investment in time and resources to set up and maintain.
  • Many organizations still have legacy systems and processes that are not compatible with DevOps practices, making it difficult to fully embrace the DevOps approach.
  • DevOps is a constantly evolving field, and keeping up with new technologies and practices requires a commitment to continuous learning and improvement.

Other challenges include the need for specialized skills and expertise, difficulty in measuring and improving DevOps performance, and potential security and compliance risks due to the high level of automation.



Fig 2. MLOps. Source

MLOps is a set of practices and tools for managing the entire lifecycle of machine learning models, from data preparation and model training to deployment and monitoring. It can also be described as implementing DevOps practices and principles in a machine learning development workflow.

The key features of MLOps include version control, automated testing, continuous integration and delivery, model tracking, and monitoring and logging. This approach is comprehensive and provides end-to-end management of the machine learning lifecycle, making it ideal for large and complex projects requiring a high degree of automation and scalability.

Use cases

MLOps has a wide range of use cases, from predictive maintenance and fraud detection to image recognition and natural language processing. Its goals are to make experimentation and model development faster, provide quality assurance, and increase the speed of deploying models into production. Here are a few real-life cases to appreciate its use:

  • To accelerate vaccine research and discovery, Merck Research Labs utilized MLOps. They solved most of their operational problems, including technology mismatch, ineffective ML lifecycles, and disconnected teams. By implementing MLOps, they streamlined their ML operations, enhanced processing capabilities, and had flexibility with the tool stack they had access to, which had different levels of automation.
  • Senko group implemented MLOps using H2O’s platform to start their AI-drive shipment volume forecast. This enabled them to streamline their operational procedures and enhance their prediction accuracy while reducing staff workload.

To ensure you pick the right tools for your MLOps needs, check out this article on end-to-end MLOps platform comparisons

MLOps processes

Fig 3. MLOps processes. Source


MLOps enables your data science team to collaborate effectively to ensure that all processes involved in model development and deployment are faster. It is gaining traction, and more organizations and research teams are gradually seeing its importance in their work. Here are some benefits which they might get from adopting MLOps frameworks and tools:

  • MLOps enables teams to scale their machine learning models more effectively, allowing them to handle different versions of their large datasets and models.
  • It facilitates collaboration and automation, allowing organizations to quickly iterate on models and respond to changing business requirements.
  • It can help improve the accuracy of your machine learning models by ensuring that data is properly managed, models are thoroughly tested, and training is optimized. This can be done by tracking important metrics of each experiment to enable your team to learn what works or doesn’t.
  • Reproducibility is an important component for data science teams to consider while carrying out a project. MLOps ensures that machine learning models are reproducible, allowing your team to quickly and easily reproduce experiments and results.
  • By automating segments of your pipeline involved in building, validating, and deploying machine learning models, MLOps can help your organization save time and resources in a predictable automated way so your team can focus on bigger tasks.
  • It enables your organization or team to implement better governance and compliance practices, ensuring that machine learning models are ethical, transparent, and compliant with relevant regulations.


There might be specific challenges that your team might face, like lack of communication or inadequate model versioning practices, among others, but generally, here are a few challenges you should know:

  • MLOps requires high-quality data to ensure accurate model training and deployment. When there are data mismatches, it can disrupt the system and affect the model’s performance. However, ensuring data quality can be a major challenge, as data is often unstructured and complex.
  • The requirements for MLOps infrastructure can be complex to support the end-to-end ML lifecycle. This includes data storage, computing resources, and deployment infrastructure. Managing this infrastructure can be challenging, particularly for smaller organizations or those with limited technical resources.
  • MLOps usually requires a wide range of skills, including data science, software engineering, and operations. Finding individuals with these skills can be difficult, and building teams with the right mix of skills can be a challenge, but if you can, it will work efficiently.
  • MLOps can be expensive, particularly for organizations that must invest in new infrastructure or hire specialized talent.
Testing. CI/CD. Monitoring.

Because ML systems are more fragile than you think. All based on our open-source core.

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ModelOps is a methodology that focuses on managing machine learning models throughout their entire lifecycle, from development to deployment and maintenance. Key features of ModelOps include model versioning, model deployment automation, continuous model monitoring, and model governance.

It is ideal for organizations that already have a well-established machine-learning infrastructure and want to focus specifically on the operationalization of models.


Fig 4. ModelOps Flow. Source

Use Cases

ModelOps has a wide range of use cases, from predictive analytics and recommendation systems to fraud detection and natural language processing.

  • Model deployment and monitoring: ModelOps can help ensure that machine learning models are deployed and monitored effectively in production environments. This can involve automating the deployment process, ensuring that models are integrated with other systems and workflows, and monitoring model performance and accuracy over time.
  • Model retraining and updating: Machine learning models require ongoing retraining and updating to maintain their accuracy and relevance. ModelOps can help automate this process by enabling organizations to quickly and easily retrain and update models based on new data or changing business needs.
  • Model versioning and collaboration: In many organizations, machine learning models are developed and maintained by teams of data scientists and other experts. ModelOps can help streamline collaboration and versioning by providing tools and processes for tracking changes to models, managing different versions of models, and enabling multiple users to work on the same models simultaneously.
  • Model Governance: ModelOps can also be used to manage the entire lifecycle of machine learning models, including model retirement. Model governance ensures that models are developed and deployed according to industry standards and remain compliant with regulatory requirements throughout their lifecycle.


As its significance becomes more evident, an increasing number of organizations and research groups recognize the value of incorporating ModelOps strategies and tools into their workflows. In the following, we’ll discuss the advantages they can expect from embracing ModelOps methodologies.

  • By incorporating feedback from production environments into the model development process, ModelOps can help improve model performance and accuracy over time.
  • ModelOps enables faster and more efficient model development, testing, and deployment by automating many processes.
  • It facilitates better collaboration between data scientists, engineers, and other stakeholders in the model development and deployment process, leading to more efficient and effective workflows.
  • Provides a scalable and flexible infrastructure for deploying models in production environments, making it easier to handle large-scale deployments and scale up or down as needed.
  • It can help ensure compliance with regulatory and governance requirements by providing visibility and control over the model development and deployment process.


When implementing ModelOps, hurdles might emerge; let’s delve into some common challenges you should be aware of:

  • There is no single standard for deploying and managing machine learning models, which can lead to inconsistencies and difficulties in integrating different models and systems.
  • Machine learning models have a complex lifecycle that includes training, testing, deployment, and monitoring, which can be difficult to manage and optimize without proper tools and processes.
  • Machine learning models rely on large volumes of data, and managing and securing this data can be a significant challenge. Ensuring data quality, privacy, and compliance with regulations is essential for effective ModelOps.
  • Implementing ModelOps requires a wide range of technical skills, including machine learning, software development, data engineering, and operations. Finding people with the necessary expertise can be difficult and expensive.
  • Effective ModelOps requires collaboration and communication between different teams, including data scientists, developers, and operations staff. Achieving this level of collaboration can be challenging, especially in large organizations with complex structures.

Other challenges include the need for robust model monitoring and governance processes to ensure models are performing as expected and compliance with regulatory requirements.

The table below provides an overview of the differences between MLOps, DevOps, and ModelOps based on their focus, key components, tools, and use cases.

FocusML Lifecycle and DeploymentDevelopment and OperationsEnd-to-end model management and governance
Key ComponentsContinuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) pipelines, Experiment Tracking, Model Versioning, Model ServingCI/CD pipelines, Configuration Management, Monitoring, LoggingAutomated Model Development, Model Versioning, Model Performance Monitoring, Model Governance
Key ToolsKubeflow, MLflow, TensorFlow Extended (TFX), Deechecks, Amazon SageMaker, Microsoft Azure MLJenkins, GitLab, Ansible, Chef, PuppetDeepchecks, Hugging Face, KubeFlow, TensorFlow Model Analysis (TFMA), MLflow, Kubeflow
Key Use CasesStreamlines the development, deployment, and monitoring of machine learning models for object detection, speech recognition, text classification, predictive maintenance, etcContinuous delivery of software applications, infrastructure management, automationModel development and deployment for finance, healthcare, and retail industries

Table 1. Comparing MLOps, DevOps and ModelOps

Choosing the Right Approach

When choosing between MLOps, DevOps, and ModelOps, it’s important to consider factors such as:

  1. Team Composition MLOps and ModelOps require a team with expertise in machine learning and data science, while DevOps requires a team with expertise in software development and infrastructure management.
  2. Project Complexity MLOps and ModelOps are typically better suited for projects that involve complex machine learning models, while DevOps may be sufficient for simpler software development projects.
  3. Data Requirements MLOps and ModelOps require access to large amounts of high-quality data to train machine learning models, while DevOps may require less data.
  4. Infrastructure MLOps and ModelOps often require specialized infrastructure, such as GPUs or specialized software libraries, while DevOps may require more traditional IT infrastructure.
  5. Regulatory Compliance If the project involves sensitive data or is subject to regulatory compliance requirements, ModelOps may be the best choice due to its focus on model governance and auditing.
  6. Business Objectives Ultimately, the choice between MLOps, DevOps, and ModelOps should be based on the specific business objectives of the project, such as time-to-market, cost-effectiveness, and scalability.

Different scenarios may require different approaches. For example, projects that involve simple machine learning models and small data sets may benefit more from DevOps, while projects that involve large and complex models and big data sets may require more specialized approaches, such as MLOps or ModelOps. In addition, projects that involve regulatory compliance requirements may require more rigorous governance and monitoring, which may be better served by ModelOps.


Selecting the right approach for a machine learning project is crucial for the success and effectiveness of the project. It requires careful consideration of various factors, including the complexity of the models, the size of the data sets, the level of automation required, and the regulatory and compliance requirements. By selecting the right approach, organizations can achieve better results, reduce costs and risks, and improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the project. Therefore, it’s important to stay informed about the latest developments and best practices in this area and to continuously evaluate and optimize the approaches used in machine learning projects.

Testing. CI/CD. Monitoring.

Because ML systems are more fragile than you think. All based on our open-source core.

Deepchecks Hub Our GithubOpen Source