Tree-Based Models

A decision tree is used in tree-based models to show how different input variables might be utilized to predict a target value. For both classification and regression tasks, such as determining the species of animal or the worth of a property, machine learning employs tree-based models. To construct the decision tree, the input variables are continually split into subsets, and each branch is examined for prediction accuracy and assessed for efficiency and effectiveness. The number of layers and calculations necessary to create an accurate forecast can be reduced by splitting the variables into a different sequence. When creating a successful decision tree, the most essential variables—those that have the most influence on the prediction—are placed at the top of the tree hierarchy, while unimportant characteristics are removed.

Because of a variety of advantages, tree-based models are a popular strategy in machine learning.

  • Decision trees are simple to grasp and analyze, and the consequences are straightforward to explain.

They may be used for both classification and regression models and can accept both categorical and numerical input. They outperform other strategies in terms of computation, even for big data sets, and they need less data preparation.

Creation of Decision Tree models

Building a model primarily consists of two steps: selecting which characteristics to divide on and then making a choice when to stop.

The aim while deciding which characteristics to divide on is to choose the feature that will result in the most homogeneous datasets. Minimizing entropy, a measure of the unpredictability within a dataset, and maximizing information gain, the decrease in entropy that occurs from splitting on a particular feature, is the simplest and most generally used technique of achieving this.

  • You should split on the feature that yields the most information gain, then recalculate entropy and information gain for the output datasets.

The largest information gain value will then be compared to other possible splits, with the best information gain value being utilized at that node. Decision tree models may divide on each numerical characteristic numerous times at various value thresholds, allowing them to handle nonlinear interactions successfully.

The second decision you must make is whether or not to continue dividing the tree. You can divide until each final node has very few data points, but this will almost certainly result in overfitting or the creation of a model that is overly unique to the dataset on which it was trained.

This is a concern because, while it may produce reasonable predictions for that one dataset, it may not generalize well to new data, which is what you want.

Pruning is a strategy for removing portions that have limited predictive value to address this. Setting a maximum tree depth, the minimum amount of samples per leaf, or the end node are some of the most frequent pruning approaches.

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  • A plain and simple interpretation
  • Good at dealing with non-linear, complicated relationships


  • Because solitary models are handicapped to overfitting, predictions are usually shaky.
  • Unstable, since even little changes in the dataset might have a significant influence on the final findings.


In machine learning, tree-based models are particularly common. The decision tree model, which is the core of tree-based models, is simple to read but a poor predictor in general. Random forest and gradient boosting are two of the most prominent ensemble methods for generating stronger predictions from numerous trees. All tree-based models are good at handling non-linear relationships and may be used for regression or classification.